Sejarah Sukuk – Masa-Masa Awal dan Pertengahan

Sukuk Abad 12 Masehi

Sukuk Abad 12 Masehi Yang Diterbitkan Oleh Bankir Abu Zikri Judah bin Joseph ha-Kohen Sijilmasi di Mesir. (Taylor-Schechter Genizah Research Unit: T-S AR.30.184)

Sejarah sukuk dimulai pada abad pertama Hijriah pada jaman Khalifah Marwan bin al-Hakam (sekitar tahun 684-685 masehi) dari Dinasti Umayyah (661-750 masehi), di mana masyarakat menggunakan resi untuk membeli barang di pasar al-Jar. Dinarasikan oleh Imam Malik bin Anas pada Kitab Muwatta Buku 31, Nomor 31.19.40 sampai 31.19.46, resi itu berisi janji seseorang untuk membelikan barang di pasar, tetapi pembeli tersebut membayar uangnya di muka terlebih dahulu.

Yahya (al-Laithi) meriwayatkan dari Malik (bin Anas) bahwa dia mendengar resi (sukuk) tersebut diberikan pada orang di masa Marwan bin al-Hakam untuk barang-barang pasar di al-Jar. Masyarakat membeli dan menjual resi tersebut di antara mereka sebelum mereka mendapatkan barang tersebut. Zaid bin Tsabit, salah satu sahabat Nabi SAW pergi ke Marwan bin al Hakam dan berkata, “Marwan! Kamu membuat riba menjadi halal?”, dia berkata. “Aku berlindung pada Allah! Apa itu,” Marwan menjawab. “Resi ini, orang membeli dan menjualnya sebelum mereka mendapatkan barangnya,” Zaid berkata. Marwan kemudian memerintahkan petugas untuk mengikuti mereka (resi) dan kemudian mengambil mereka dari tangan masyarakat dan mengembalikannya pada pemiliknya. (al-Muwata Buku 31, Nomor 31.19.43)

Dari sini tidak ada informasi bahwa resi (sukuk) itu tidak dibolehkan, Marwan mengambil resi tersebut dan mengembalikan ke pemilik asalnya tetapi tidak memusnahkan nya. Yang dilarang adalah memperjual belikan resi tersebut ke orang lain pada saat barang tersebut belum di tangan.

Yahya meriwayatkan dari Malik bahwa Yahya bin Said mendengar sang Muazzin, Jamil bin Abdul ar-Rahman berkata pada Said bin al-Musayyab, “Saya adalah orang yang membeli apapun yang Alah kehendaki dari resi untuk makanan yang orang jual di al-Jar. Saya ingin mengambil bayaran dari barang yang saya janjikan akan kirim di hari kemudian.” Said berkata padanya, “Apakah kamu akan membayarnya dari resi yang pernah kamu beli?” Jamil menjawab, “Ya.” Dan dia (Said) melarangnya.

Malik berkata, “Tata cara umum yang kita sepakati di mana tidak ada pertentangan di dalamnya, mengenai membeli makanan – gandum, barli, sorgum, millet, atau bijih lainnya atau apapun berupa bijih yang dikenakan zakat, atau rempah-rempah – minyak, mentega, madu, cuka, keju, minyak wijen, susu, dan sebagainya, adalah pembeli tidak boleh menjual kembali barang tersebut sebelum dia memilikinya dan semua barang tersebut telah terkirim padanya.” (al-Muwata Buku 31, Nomor 31.19.46)

Sumber lain seperti Franco-American Alliance for Islamic Finance (FAAIF) dan Marifa Academy menyebutkan masih di masa Dinasti Umayyah Masid Agung Damaskus, Suriah membagikan kupon kepada para tentara dan pegawai negara yang nantinya bisa ditukar dengan barang kebutuhan pokok. Sukuk ini disebut Sukuk al-Badal (tunjangan). Suriah pada saat itu adalah pusat finansial Dinasti Umayyah.

Dalam beberapa genizah (tempat penyimpanan literatur yang terdapat pada sinagoga atau kuburan Yahudi) di Kairo (dikenal dengan nama The Cairo Genizah) tercantum mengenai sukuk pada abad pertengahan. Fungsinya mirip dengan cek pada masa kini[1].

Pada arsip Taylor-Schechter Genizah Research Unit kode T-S AR.30.184 terdapat sebuah sukuk di abad 12 yang diterbitkan oleh Abu Zikri Judah bin Joseph ha-Kohen Sijilmasi di mana terdapat jumlah yang harus dibayar, urutan pembayaran, tanggal, dan nama penerbit sukuk tersebut. Abu Zikri adalah seorang bankir yang lahir di Sijilmasa, Maroko dan kemudian pindah ke Fustat (sekarang bagian dari Kairo)[2].

Sukuk diterbitkan sebagai janji untuk membayar barang dagangan pada saat itu dan sebuah cara untuk menghindari bahaya pada saat mengangkut uang. Pedagang Yahudi dari daerah kekuasaan Muslim kemudian membawa konsep sukuk ke Eropa, dan dapat dilihat bahwa kata “cek” merupakan kata turunan dari “sakk” yang merupakan kata tunggal dari “sukuk”.

Daftar Pustaka

1. Saeed, Abdullah, and Omar Salah. “History of sukuk: pragmatic and idealist approaches to structuring sukuk.” The Islamic Debt Market for Sukuk Securities: The Theory and Practice of Profit Sharing Investment. Edward Elgar. Northampton, MA (2012): 42-66.
2. Goitein, Shelomo Dov. A Mediterranean Society: Economic Foundations. Vol. 1. Univ of California Press, 1967.


Anton Hermansyah

Noordin and Nasution

Noordin M. Top

Noordin M. Top

No surprise if the person whom killed by Detachment 88 operation is truly not Noordin M. Top. I heard several fact stated by terrorism observers such as Noordin supposed to wear a jacket bomb and must be guarded by his bodyguards (there was only one man in that house), and finally the official statement from the police stated that is not Noordin but Ibrahim, the J.W Marriott hotel’s florist, and one of Noordin’s man.

General A.H Nasution

General A.H. Nasution

But one scene’s been reminding me of a history of Indonesia back in 60’s. The scene is when the “Fake Noordin” yelled the name “Noordin M. Top” when the Detachment 88 asked “Who’s inside?”. History of Indonesia noted, when G30S PKI happened, General A.H. Nasution‘s personal aide, Pierre Tendean is mention himself as the general when the PKI’s troops asked him from back door. He was mistaken for Nasution by the troops and killed. A great sacrifice, because of that the general could get away from the murder plan. The same thing happened in the Temanggung but at the wrong side.

First Leutenant Pierre Tendean

First Leutenant Pierre Tendean

Hope Noordin M. Top could be captured as soon as possible and peace for Indonesia…!!!


Anton Hermansyah

Path for Jacko’s Kids

Prince, Jacko, and Paris

Prince, Jacko, and Paris

Death is only a beginning, maybe that word worked on Michael Jackson, not for himself but his kids.

I think that the Megastar’s death has make the world turn their eyes once again to the Jackson family whom were not popular anymore after 90’s period and the main focus are Jackson’s kids.

Paris has been a talk since her magnificent speech for tribute her father, the others Prince and Blanket whether didn’t do the same thing but it’s the first time public saw their face. Even more the controversial unknown mom of Blanket.

Omer Bhatti

Omer Bhatti

The latest news is Omer Bhatti whom considered as “Fourth Children”. Omer, suspected as the child from Michael’s one night stand with his fan Pia Bhatti from Norway is now the headline of every news about Jackson.

The popularity and the world attention could give them a path to be a superstar like their father. Even more Joe Jackson, Michael’s father is interested in making a “Jackson Three” consist of Paris, Prince and Blanket. Omer has been a performer since his youth as a dancer of Michael.

Want it or not, they already a public figure.


Anton Hermansyah

US Sport Cars Back to 70’s

It’s already 2009 but it feels like 1969 for the US muscle car fans. Because the legendary models are being revived again. Yes the big three—Ford, General Motors and Chrysler decided to remodel their sport cars to which one that resembles again the 70’s model. They are Ford Mustang, Dodge Challenger and Chevrolet Corvette.

Forget about the global crises for a while. Turbo is prohibited for American engine, they prefer the naturally aspirated one, so no wonder that US muscle car has big size engine and it means the fuel consumption make you to empty every pocket you have, but that’s the price to feel again the legend.
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Unit Linked Insurance Plans, So Far in Indonesia

Unit Linked Insurance Plans (ULIP) is a life insurance policy that combines insurance and investment. It means that if you buy the policy you get both the protection and the investment. Supposed if you pay Rp 1,000,000 per month, your money will be allocated into two accounts, the premium account and investment account, let’s say the allocation is 70:30, so the Rp 700,000 allocated to pay the premium and Rp 300,000 to pay the investment.
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MacBuntu, Fill Your Ubuntu With Mac Lookalike Widget

MacBuntuHave you ever seen a Mac? Cool isn’t it? You’ll be amazed with the view of the desktop, the animation and the widget. Well, if you want to have a Mac lookalike, there are many transformation pack for your Ubuntu desktop, the famous one is Mac4Lin that could transform your standard Ubuntu to a cool Mac lookalike.

But if you don’t want an extreme Mac look, but still want Mac’s gadget on your Ubuntu (the Intrepid one I mean), you could have it without downloading the Mac4Lin or even adding a repo. Here’s the way.
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Obama’s Gadget, Should It be Connected with Nationalism?

Barack Obama (timesonline.typepad.com)

Barack Obama (timesonline.typepad.com)

There are two gadgets that Barack Obama famous with (at least on my opinion). They are Nintendo Wii and Blackberry.

One of Obama’s campaign says, “Turn off the TV, turn off the video games and start make history”, well it didn’t address straight to the Wii, but in the video it shows a Wii-mote (not a Dualshock or X-Box Controller). And the new President of USA has decided to bring the Wii to the White House.
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